Saturday, 25 March 2017

Bee keeping and honey production (article 2) tools required for bee keeping and management

4.2 BEEKEEPING
Most farmers in Africa, have no record of any scientific approach to rear honey bees but harvest honey stored up by wild bees in hallows of tree, shrubs, house roofs through the destruction of the bees with flames of fire. The aftermath of this is the reduction of food crop-pollinating insects and crop yields, burning of large crop plantations and the contamination and/or destruction of other bee hive products.
Disheartenly enough, the honey hunters throw away the wax (which is more profitable than honey) after the harvesting of the honey they are looking for around the trees from where honey is harvested. A little wax picked after harvesting by some honey hunters may be used for traditional medicine.

4.2.1 Modern Beekeeping : Basic requirements for apiary establishment
Due to the aggressiveness of the Apis melifera adansonii, it is advisable to site your hive near the farm to enable farm laborers to do their work (100 -200 meters away from crops may be alright).
The ideal apiary site should be:
 Away from nearby road, playgrounds, church, market and noisy commercial of industrial areas:
 Near a fresh water supply, the banks of a river, or fish pond or a dripping faucet;
 Near food source, e.g. citrus, avocado, coconut, oil palm, kolanut, shea butter, neem or eucalyptus plantation, cocoa and other fruit crops;
 Accessible to good roads;


 Fairly dry, away from swampy or flooding valley or any bottom land with stagnant water;
 On the leeward side of a hill with rainfall not exceeding 1250mm a year;
 Away from smoke and fire, danger of vandalism and unfriendly neighbors.

4.3 Equipments Needed
 Bee hive and stand
 Bait (attractant ): honey bee wax, pineapple juice, raffia wine, palm wine, locust bean, cocoa bean juice.
 Gloves
 Clothing
 The smoker
 Hive tool
 Knife
 Honey processing Equipment
 Honey press
 Keg for storage
 Sieves/ strainer/ mono filament filter
 Buckets


4.4 How To Bait
 Rub any of the baits against the inner walls of the hive. It is important to rub the bait against the tip of the V-shape or ridged portion and the wooden starter top-bars. This will guide the bees to build their combs along it. A beginner beekeeper who is serious does not wear the bee suit at baiting.


 Rub the entrance with the bait. However, you must not scare the bees even if they are poaching on your nose. Do not attempt to kill any of the bees. Do not fear of being stung. Set the bars properly and cover the hive.

5.0 BEE MANAGEMENT
Ensure that:
 Place your hive with the entrance facing the east;
 Approach the hive from behind or from the side and do your operations from these two locations;
 Avoid noise making and sudden movements;
 If accidentally stung, remove the sting and smoke the spot to prevent more sting;
 Smoke the bees and self to make them calm;
 Be careful with the use of fire and disposal to avoid fire outbreak;

5.1 DRESSING
Proper dressing includes:
 Wearing of hat and veil to protect the your head and face:
 Wearing of overall to protect the body;
 Wearing of glove to protect the legs

Ensuring that your whole body is properly protected.
When the bees are settled in the hive, the hive is said to be colonized.
5.2 Avoid Provoking Or Killing The Bees
 Work with bees with respect and not with fear;
 Avoid killing the bees to avoid aggressiveness;


 Handle the comb vertically and not horizontally or slanting position;
 Ensure firm and straight handling of the top bars at inspection to avoid the breakage of the combs;
 Do not use perfume on your body or cloth;
 Choose suitable time to work with the bees i.e. avoid rainy day, strong sunny day;
 Ensure that each apiary is visited twice a month to be sure the bees are doing well.




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