Monday, 27 March 2017

How to start Yam Farming In Nigeria

INTRODUCTION TO YAM FARMING
Yam belongs to the family Discorecoceae. It is a root and tuber crop popularly grown in Nigeria, It is rich in carbohydrate.

West Africa is the most important area for yam production in the world, over 90% of global yam production comes from West Africa.
Nigeria alone produces 68% of the world yam, therefore, the highest producer in the world.


VARIETES OR CULTIVARS
The West Africans edible yam are:
1. Discorea rotunda - white Yam
2. Discorea alata - water Yam
3. Discorea cayenesis - yellow Yam
4. Discorea dumentorum - Sweet Yam
5. Discorea builfera - Aerial Yam



Climate: the most adequate climatic condition for the cultivation of yam.



Temperature: 250c-300c



LAND PREPARATION: Our peasant farmers make use of: Cutlass to clear the bush or vegetable Hoe to make heaps, ridges or mounds This operation can also be done mechanically i.e ploughing-harrowing-ridging.

Method of propagation: Yam are propagated through the following materials:
Yam set(250gramme weight): This is planted to produce ware yam. Yam mini sets (25gramme weight): A new technology aimed at ensuring mass production of yam planting materials.

It produces small whole tuber known as seed yam.

Seed yam: Production of yam "yam milking" as well as minisett technology. It is a small whole tuber that can be used as planting material.

SEED RATE: 2 seed per hectare (10,000 seed yam)
PLANTING DATE:
Early Yam: Oct-Nov. (must be mulched adequately)
Late Yam: March- April when early rain commences



PRE-PLANTING OPERATION
Yam treatment: Treat yam set with mocozeb, cypermethrin or neem leaves solution.

Note: Add 4 take away rubber spoon of macozeb to 4 litres of water and add adequate quantrity of wood ash into the mixture.
Put the setts into sides/bottom perforated bowl and small basket and dip it into the solution for 2-5 minutes.
Allow the yam sets to air dry for 1-2 hours before planting.

PLANTING: Plant with the cut surface upward and slantly placed at angle 450.


PLANTING DEPTH: Oct-Nov planting: 12-15cm deep March- April planting: 6-10cm deep

SPACING:
Yam sett/seed yam: 1x1 metre (10,000/ha)
Yam miniset: 25cm x 1 metre (40,000/ha)

POST PLANTING OPERATION: Mulching: This is the covering of the heaps or ridge with dry plant debris to reduce soil temperature, conserve soil moisture and prevent rotten of yam selts.

 Staking: Yam should be stalked with strong stick or bamboo. It ensures adequate exposure of leaf surface to sunlight and increase yield.

It makes weeding easier. Training of vines: This is done regularly after staking to ensure even spreading and neatness of the vines to recieve sunlight.

Weeding: This should be done regularly to control pest and reduces competition with planted crops for nutrients.

METHOD OF WEEDING
Cultural: Hand weeding using hoe and cutlass. (3-4 time)

I WILL CONTINUE WITH THE SECOND PART NEXT WEEK SUPPORTED WITH VIDEO<
WATCH OUT FOR IT. FARMING IS THE WAY OUT TO NIGERIA ECONOMIC RECESSION.

2 comments:

Whatsapp Button works on Mobile Device only

Start typing and press Enter to search